Lighting design for monumental complex: a case study


As part of the restoration of the Neptune Fountain in Bologna, research was carried out, and certain design proposals were formulated which offer food for thought and give new light to the monumental complex within the context in which it is located, in the system of squares Maggiore and Neptune. The activity was divided into two distinct phases, the first was concerned with surveying the current state of lighting of the fountain and the adjacent spaces; the second focused on drafting proposals for a new lighting system, based on new LED technologies, of the fountain of Neptune and the areas immediately surrounding which was  presented by means of synthetic images derived from the digital reconstruction of the site. This article presents the working method applied and the results achieved.


Cultural heritage; Lighting survey; Lighting design; Automatic photogrammetry; Digital reconstruction

Full Text:




Apollonio, F. I., Ballabeni, M., Bertacchi, S., Fallavollita, F., Foschi, R., & Gaiani, M. (2017). From documentation images to restauration support tools: a path following the Neptune fountain in Bologna design process. ISPRS - International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, XLII-5/W1, 329–336.

Apollonio, F. I., Ballabeni, M., Bertacchi, S., Fallavollita, F., Foschi, R., & Gaiani, M. (2018). Digital documentation and restoration tools reusing existing imagery: A multipurpose model of the Neptune’s Fountain in Bologna. Applied Geomatics, 10(4), 295–316.

Brandi, U., & Geissmar-Brandi, C. (2006). Light for cities: Lighting design for urban spaces; a handbook (1st ed.). Basel: Birkhäuser Architecture.

Comité européen de normalisation - CEN (2004). EN 13201_02:2004 “Road lighting - Part 2: Performance requirements”.

Cheung, V., & Westland, S. (2006). Methods for optimal color selection. Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, 50(5), 481-488.

Di Salvo, S. (2014). Innovation in lighting for enhancing the appreciation and preservation of archaeological heritage. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 15(2), 209–212.

Ente Italiano di Normazione - UNI (2012). UNI 11248:2012 “Illuminazione stradale - Selezione delle categorie illuminotecniche”.

Fotios, S., & Gibbons, R. (2018). Road lighting research for drivers and pedestrians: The basis of luminance and illuminance recommendations. Lighting Research & Technology, 50(1), 154–186.

Gaiani, M., Apollonio, F. I., Ballabeni, A., & Remondino, F. (2017). Securing color fidelity in 3D architectural heritage scenarios. Sensors, 17(11), 2437.

Guo, X., & Houser, K. (2004). A review of colour rendering indices and their application to commercial light sources. Lighting Research & Technology, 36(3), 183–197.

Moeck, M. (2000). Lighting design based on luminance contrast. Lighting Research and Technology, 32(2), 55–63.

Nameda, N. (1990). Modeling effect of shading: New approach. Lighting Research & Technology, 22(2), 95–101.

Peña-García, A., Hurtado, A., & Aguilar-Luzón, M. C. (2015). Impact of public lighting on pedestrians’ perception of safety and well-being. Safety Science, 78, 142–148.

Peña-García, A., Hurtado, A., & Aguilar-Luzón, M. C. (2016). Considerations about the impact of public lighting on pedestrians’ perception of safety and well-being. Safety Science, 89, 315–318.

Pierleoni, P., Belli, A., Palma, L., Valenti, S., Raggiunto, S., Incipini, L., & Ceregioli, P. (2018). The scrovegni chapel moves into the future: An innovative internet of things solution brings new light to Giotto’s masterpiece. IEEE Sensors Journal, 18(18), 7681–7696.

Rea, M., Bullough, J., & Akashi, Y. (2009). Several views of metal halide and high-pressure sodium lighting for outdoor applications. Lighting Research & Technology, 41(4), 297–320.

Regional council of Emilia-Romagna region - Italy (2003). Law n.19, 29/09/2003 "Norme in materia di riduzione dell'Inquinamento Luminoso e di risparmio energetico". Retrieved from

Regional council of Emilia-Romagna region - Italy (2015). Terza Direttiva per l'applicazione dell'art. 2 della Legge Regionale 29 settembre 2003, n. 19 recante: "Norme in materia di riduzione dell'inquinamento luminoso e di risparmio energetico". Retrieved from

Rossi, M. (2019). Evaluation of Artificial Light with Respect to Human Health. In Circadian Lighting Design in the LED Era. Research for Development (pp. 57-100). Cham: Springer.

Tuttle R. J. (2015). The Neptune Fountain in Bologna - Bronze, Marble, and Water in the Making of a Papal City. Turnhout: Harvey Miller.

Tuttle, R. J. (2016). The Neptune fountain in Bologna. Retrieved from

Wann Jensen, H. (2001). Realistic image synthesis using photon mapping. Natick, MA: A. K. Peters ltd.

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Andrea Siniscalco, Maurizio Rossi, Fabrizio Ivan Apollonio

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.