Virtual access to heritage through scientific drawing, semantic models and VR-experience of the Stronghold of Arquata del Tronto after the earthquake


Interactive representation has proven to be an effective tool in various disciplines related to Digital Cultural Heritage (DCH). This study proposes a research method that uses interactive representation to share complex scenarios like the Stronghold of Arquata del Tronto, facilitating novel forms of heritage dissemination. The scan-to-BIM process made it possible to digitise complex structural elements damaged by the 2016 earthquake. The investigation of the complexity paradigm improved the reliability of the semantic model that supports the preservation process. Interoperability and accessibility paradigms were explored to create a more comprehensive and accurate understanding of the built heritage. A web-VR platform was developed to enhance user interaction and simplify virtual environment exploration without using complex hardware (VR headset and controllers), making it possible to experience VR in the browser.


Interactive Representation; Drawing; Virtual Reality; Arquata del Tronto; Web-VR Platform

Full Text:




Agnello, F., Cannella, M., & Geraci, M.R. (2022). AR/VR Contextualization of the Statue of Zeus from Solunto. In A. Giordano, M. Russo, & R. Spallone (Eds), Representation Challenges: New Frontiers of AR and AI Research for Cultural Heritage and Innovative Design (pp. 237-244). Milano: Franco Angeli. .

Anderson, E. F., McLoughlin, L., Liarokapis, F., Peters, C., Petridis, P., & De Freitas, S. (2010). Developing serious games for cultural heritage: a state-of-the-art review. Virtual reality, 14, 255-275.

Beck, J., Rainoldi, M., & Egger, R. (2019). Virtual reality in tourism: a state-of-the-art review. Tourism Review, 74(3), 586-612.

Bekele, M. K., Pierdicca, R., Frontoni, E., Malinverni, E. S., & Gain, J. (2018). A survey of augmented, virtual, and mixed reality for cultural heritage. Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage (JOCCH), 11(2), 1-36.

Beltramini, G., & Gaiani, M. (2017). PALLADIOlibrary–A growing virtualization project to understand Andrea Palladio’s works. SCIRES-IT - SCIentific RESearch and Information Technology, 7(2), 73-84.

Bianchini, C. (2014). Survey, modelling, interpretation as multidisciplinary components of a Knowledge System. SCIRES-IT- SCIentific RESearch and Information Technology, 4(1), 15-24.

Bruno, S., & De Fino, M. (2021). Decision-making for historic building diagnosis by logical inference in HBIM approach: the case of onsite inspection of timber elements. SCIRES-IT - SCIentific RESearch and Information Technology, 11(2), 67-82.

Brusaporci, S., Centofanti, M., Continenza, R., & Trizio, I. (2012). Sistemi Informativi Architettonici per la gestione, tutela e fruizione dell'edilizia storica. In Atti 16ª Conferenza Nazionale ASITA (pp. 315-322). Vicenza: ASITA.

Cannella, M. (2021). Hulot’s Selinunte: digital analysis and virtual reconstruction. SCIRES-IT - SCIentific RESearch and Information Technology, 11(2), 113-124.

Eastman, C., Teicholz, P., Sacks, R., & Liston, K. (2011), BIM Handbook: A Guide to Building Information Modeling for Owners, Managers, Designers, Engineers and Contractors (2). New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Facchi E., Grimoldi A., Landi A. G., & Zamperini E. (2021). Reconstructed overhanging battlements. Executive techniques and their vulnerability in the Stronghold of Arquata del Tronto (Italy). In P. Roca, L. Pelà, C. Molins (Eds), Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Structural Analysis of Historical Constructions SAHC 2020.

Ferretti, U., Quattrini, R., & D’Alessio, M. (2022). A Comprehensive HBIM to XR Framework for Museum Management and User Experience in Ducal Palace at Urbino. Heritage, 5(3), 1551-1571.

Galera-Rodríguez, A., Angulo-Fornos, R., & Algarín-Comino, M. (2022). Survey and 3D modelling of underground heritage spaces with complex geometry: surface optimisation for association with HBIM methodology. SCIRES-IT - SCIentific RESearch and Information Technology, 12(1), 177-190.

Gargaro, S., Del Giudice, M., & Ruffino, P. A. (2018). Towards a multi-functional HBIM model. SCIRES-IT-SCIentific RESearch and Information Technology, 8(2), 49-58.

Giordano, A., Russo, M., & Spallone, R. (2021). Representation Challenges: Augmented Reality and Artificial Intelligence in Cultural Heritage and Innovative Design Domain. Milano: Franco Angeli.

Grimoldi, A., Landi, A.G., & Adami, M. (2023), Past restorations and current damages in a building affected by seismic events (2016): the Stronghold of Arquata del Tronto (Italy). In Proceedings of the SAHC-2023 Conference (forthcoming).

Guidi, G., Russo, M., & Angheleddu, D. (2014). 3D Survey and virtual reconstruction of archaeological sites. Digital Applications In Archaeology And Cultural Heritage, 1(2), 55-69.

Hou, Y., Kenderdine, S., Picca, D., Egloff, M., & Adamou, A. (2022). Digitizing intangible cultural heritage embodied: State of the art. Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage (JOCCH), 15(3), 1-20.

Hussein, K. A., & Ismaeel, E. H. (2020). State-of-the-art of Historic Building Information Modelling-HBIM Trends in the Built Heritage-Review Paper. Diyala Journal of Engineering Sciences, 13(3), 77-90.

Ippolito, A. (2015). Digital documentation for archaeology. Case studies on Etruscan and Roman heritage. SCIRES-IT - SCIentific RESearch and Information Technology, 5 (2), 71-90.

Lasorella, M., Cantatore, E., & Fatiguso, F. (2021). Smart approaches to enhance technical knowledge of in/low-accessible heritage. SCIRES-IT - SCIentific RESearch and Information Technology, 11(2), 97-112.

Murphy, M., McGovern, E., & Pavia, S. (2013), Historic Building Information Modeling – Adding intelligence to laser and image-based surveys of European classical architecture. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 76, 89-102.

Osello, A. (2012). Il futuro del disegno con il BIM per ingegneri e architetti/The Future of Drawing with BIM for Engineers and Architects. Palermo, Italy: D. Flaccovio.

Petrucci, E., Lapucci, D., & Lapucci, N. (2020). La Rocca di Arquata del Tronto: simbolo di rinascita per il territorio marchigiano colpito dal sisma. In J. Navarro Palazón, & L. J. García-Pulido (Eds.), Defensive Architecture of the Mediterranean, vol. 12 (pp. 1335-1342).

Piegl, L., & Tiller, W. (1996). The NURBS book. Springer Science & Business Media.

Rocha, G., Mateus, L., Fernández, J., & Ferreira, V. (2020). A scan-to-BIM methodology applied to heritage buildings. Heritage, 3(1), 47-67.

Sdegno, A., Masserano, S., Cochelli, P., Mior, D., & Gobbo, E. (2015). Augmented Painted Architectures for Communicating Cultural Heritage. SCIRES-IT - SCIentific RESearch and Information Technology, 5(1), 93-100.

Trizio, I, Savini, F., Giannangeli, A., Fiore, S., Marra, A., Fabbrocino, G., & Ruggieri, A. (2019). Versatil tools: digital survey and virtual reality for documentation, analysis and fruition of cultural heritage in seismic areas. The International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, 42, 377–384.

Zamperini, E. (2021). I vulnerabili restauri del Novecento. La Rocca di Arquata del Tronto e il suo recupero. Territorio, 96, 48-60.

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Fabrizio Banfi, Chiara Stanga, Angelo Giuseppe Landi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.



SCIRES-IT, e-ISSN 2239-4303

Journal founded by Virginia Valzano